Gauba, a 1982-batch IAS officer of the Jharkhand cadre, will initially join as the Officer on Special Duty in the Cabinet Secretariat, before he takes over the charge of the country's top bureaucratic post from the incumbent P K Sinha.
The appointment was approved by the Appointments Committee of the Union Cabinet. Gauba took charge as the home secretary on August 31, 2017.
Sixty-year-old Gauba had also served as secretary in the Union urban development ministry, additional secretary in the home ministry, looking after crucial left wing extremism division, among many other responsibilities.
Gauba has wide-ranging experience in senior positions at policy making and programme implementation in both central and state governments and in international organisations.
He had served in Jharkhand as the chief secretary for 15 months before returning to serve in the central government in 2016.
He represented India on the board of International Monetary Fund for four years.
As the Union home secretary, he has handling issues such as internal security, militancy in Jammu and Kashmir and the Northeast, Maoist problems in the central and east India besides other issues.